It is expensive to use model organisms as the animals must be purchased and then fed, housed and cared for. There is no middle ground for these groups; they want the immediate and total abolition of all animal research.
This cost—benefit analysis is almost unique to UK animal research legislation; only German law has a similar requirement. Even in regulatory toxicology, which might seem to be a relatively straightforward task, about 20 different tests are required to assess the risk of any new substance. The basic mechanisms of heart disease have been studied in dogs, rats, rabbits, cats, sheep, and pigs.
Notwithstanding this, the development of alternatives—which invariably come from the scientific community, rather than anti-vivisection groups—will necessitate the continued use of animals during the research, development and validation stages.
This involves detailed examination of the procedures and the number and type of animals used.
This involves detailed examination of the particular procedures and experiments, and the numbers and types of animal used. Sometimes this is achieved relatively easily by improving animal husbandry and housing, for example, by enriching their environment.
In addition, scientists can easily control the environment around the animal diet, temperature, lighting, etc. In particular, mammals are essential to researchers because they are the closest to us in evolutionary terms.
Pain is a stressor and, if not relieved, can lead to unacceptable levels of stress and distress in animals. At the onset of sleep, the rat would either fall into the water only to clamber back to the pot to avoid drowning, or its nose would become submerged into the water shocking it back to an awakened state.
The UK has gone further than any other country to write such an ethical framework into law by implementing the Animals Scientific Procedures Act Opponents to any kind of animal research—including both animal-rights extremists and anti-vivisectionist groups—believe that animal experimentation is cruel and unnecessary, regardless of its purpose or benefit.
These conditions are the number one killers of men, women, and children.
Some animals have biological similarities to humans that make them particularly good models for specific diseases, such as rabbits for atherosclerosis or monkeys for polio. Scientists may discover such drugs and procedures using alternative research methods that do not involve animals.
They are caught in the wild or purpose-bred. The animal studies are done first to give medical researchers a better idea of what benefits and complications they are likely to see in humans.
It is clear that the UK public would widely support the existing regulatory system if they knew more about it. In practice, there has been concern that the Ethical Review Process adds a level of bureaucracy that is not in proportion to its contribution to improving animal welfare or furthering the 3Rs.
Animal-rights groups also disagree with the 3Rs, since these principles still allow for the use of animals in research; they are only interested in replacement. Good science and good experimental design also help to reduce the number of animals used in research as they allow scientists to gather data using the minimum number of animals required.
They are used as models for human and veterinary diseases in cardiology, endocrinologyand bone and joint studies, research that tends to be highly invasive, according to the Humane Society of the United States.Animals are used in all capacities of research: for example, a rabbit’s sensory system may be studied in basic research; she may be used as a model for eye and skin disorders, or used in eye and skin irritancy tests for environmental toxicity testing.
Scientists use animals to learn more about health problems that affect both humans and animals, and to assure the safety of new medical treatments.
Medical researchers need to understand health problems before they can develop ways to treat them.
Some diseases and health problems involve processes that can only be studied in a living organism. The Research Defence Society (RDS; London, UK), an organization representing doctors and scientists in the debate on the use of animals in research and testing, welcomes the greater openness that the FOI Act brings to discussions about animal research.
It is also true that the ethical principles that govern animal research include the replacement of animal models, and use of less complex species, when possible. Among other reasons, this has led to the decreased need for and use of great apes such as chimpanzees in various types of biomedical research.
Human beings use animals for a wide variety of purposes, including research. The approximately million people in the United States keep about million dogs and cats as pets.
More than 5 billion animals are killed in the United States each year as a source of food. Animals are used for. The terms animal testing, animal experimentation, animal research, in vivo testing, and vivisection have similar denotations but different connotations.
Literally, "vivisection" means the "cutting up" of a living animal, and historically referred only to experiments that involved the dissection of live animals.Download